Forfatter Emne: Hvad er CCSVI ???  (Læst 36412 gange)

Offline hag

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Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Dato: 20 December 2009, 12:23:14 »
Følgende er en beskrivelse af CCSVI.

Kilde: Thisisms.com – oversat af Google-translate, med enkelte tilrettelser af undertegnede.

1. Hvad er CCSVI?

Chonic CerebroSpinal Venous Insufficiency – eller Kronisk CerebroSpinal Venøs Insufficiens (KCSVI ?!) ... det er et kronisk (igangværende) problem, hvor blod fra hjerne og rygrad har problemer med at komme tilbage til hjertet. Problemet er forårsaget af stenose (en forsnævring) i venerne, som leder blodet fra hjernen tilbage til hjertet. Blodet er længere tid om at komme tilbage til hjertet, og det kan dannes reflux, hvor blodet hvirvler tilbage i hjerne og rygsøjle eller forårsager ødemer og udsivning af røde blodlegemer og væsker i det sarte væv i hjernen og rygsøjlen. Blodet, som forbliver i hjernen for længe skaber "forsinket perfusion" ... dvs det af-iltede blod er for langt tid om at komme ud af hjernen. Dette kan forårsage iltmangel (hypoxi) i hjernen. Plasma og jern fra blodet deponeres i hjernevævet, og dette er også meget skadeligt.

2. Hvordan er CCSVI relateret til MS?

Alle MS patienter testet indtil nu har CCSVI! Over 500 MS-patienter i Italien har det. De blev testet af Dr. Paolo Zamboni. 45 MS-patienter i USA har det. De blev testet af Dr. Michael Dake. 20-30 MS-patienter i Polen har fået diagnosen CCSVI. De blev testet af Dr. Marian Simka. 1.700 patienter og kontrolpersoner er ved at blive testet for det ved Jacobs Neurological Institute i SUNY Buffalo (bnac.net).

Ingen af de raske patienter (kontrol-grupper) har CCSVI. Ingen af de patienter med andre neurologiske sygdomme har det. Kun personer med MS.

3. Og hvad så???? Måske er det MS læsioner der forårsager dette. Hønen og ægget og alt det? Måske er læsionerne skyld i åre problemet?

Nix. Vi har allerede et par af medicinske modeller for processen med kronisk venøs insufficiens i hjerne og rygsøjle .... det sker nemlig andre steder i kroppen, og vi har vidst det i årevis.

a. Kronisk venøs insufficiens i benene. Det er en proces, der begynder med reflux og blokering i venerne i benene. Det afiltede blodet kan ikke komme tilbage til hjertet, og forårsager derved ødemer (hævelser) og udsivning af røde blodlegemer og væske ind i vævet af benet. Dette skaber petekkier (blod pletter), jern aflejring i væv, eller venøse sår (faktiske læsioner på benene). Det fremkalder nye vener (kaldet edderkoppe-vener – eller kolatterale vener). Disse opstår for at få blodet ført tilbage, men de er utilstrækkelige.

b. Kongestiv Venøs myelopati. En proces, hvor blokering i venerne langs rygsøjlen få blodårerne til at lække skadelige røde blodlegemer og væske ind i vævet omkring rygsøjlen. Resultatet er demyeliniserende læsioner på rygsøjlen. Lammelser, balance og blære problemer som resultat.

4. Tja ... det fint er fint alt sammen, men jeg er på en immunmodulerende medicin, og den vil tage sig af dette problem, ikke?

Egentlig ikke. CCSVI er blevet fundet i alle MS-patienter testet, uanset om de er på immunmodulerende medicin eller ej. En kvinde, der undergik fuldstændig immun erstatning med Revimmune havde stadig CCSVI med 2 blokerede jugular vener. Dr. Zamboni testede over 500 MS-patienter - mange, der var på immunmodulerende medicin, og de havde alle stadig CCSVI.

5. Hvordan kan jeg finde ud af om jeg har det?

Der er et par forskellige protokoller, afhængigt af hvor du bor, og hvad der er til rådighed. I Italien, begynder Dr. Zamboni med en Doppler ultralyd af hals og hjerne, for at se om blodet er refluxing. Så udføres en MRV. Det er her kontraststof sprøjtes ind i dine blodårer for at se blodgennemstrømningen og eventuel stenose (forsnævring). Jacobs Neurological Institute i USA (Buffalo) følger denne protokol. Dr. Dake på Stanford Universitets-hospital bruger MRV (magnetisk resonans venografi) efterfulgt af intravaskulær venografi for at diagnosticere stenose. Dr. Mark Haacke bruger en kombination af SWI-MRI teknologi og MRV, men han anbefaler også doppler undersøgelser for at bekræfte refluks. I Polen, undersøger Dr. Simka hjælp af Doppler-teknologi efterfulgt af MRV.

6. Min neurolog læste om forskningen og sagde, at det er umuligt, at jeg  kan have dette. Desuden er det udokumenteret.

Det er din neurologs mening!

Spørg dig selv .... er din neurologs udtalelser baseret på fakta? Spørg ham / hun, hvad han/hun tror forårsager MS demyeliniserings processen. Og bed om de faktiske omstændigheder, ikke spekulationer.

7. Min neurolog siger, at MS er autoimmun, og han kan bevise det! Jeg har oligoklonale bånd i min spinalvæske, og det viser at mit immunforsvar er ved at gå efter min myelin.

Mind din neurolog om, at oligoklonale bånd i spinalvæske også forekommer i patienter med neurovaskulære sygdomme – som fx slagtilfælde og demens. Det er et velkendt faktum, at immunsystemet aktiveres for at rydde op efter aksonal død og væv skader i hjernen. Det betyder ikke et slagtilfælde er en autoimmun sygdom! CCSVI volder skade på hjernen og aksonal død .... selvfølgelig vil immunsystemet  blive inddraget! Men immunsystemet ikke årsag til CCSVI. CCSVI kommer først.

8. Wow! Hvis jeg har CCSVI, hvad der kan gøres ved det??

Den gode nyhed er, at Dr. Zamboni har testet en procedure (The Liberation Treatment) på hans italienske patienter i to år. Han går ind i en vene i lysken (gennem et lille snit) og går op i den blokerede vene og åbner med en lille ballon. Han har gjort dette på hundredvis af patienter, og mange har betydeligt reducerede symptomer eller helbredelse. Han har også udført denne procedure på 18 MS-patienter, der var på hospitalet midt i et attak. Attak’ets  symptomer standsede og blev reverserede i løbet af 4 timer til 4 dage - efter ballon proceduren ... uden bruge af steroider! Dr. Michael Dake ved Stanford University har anvendt stents (metal rør) til at holde venerne åbne, hvis ballonudvidelsen ikke holder årerne åbne. Han går også ind via lysken. Patienterne har efterfølgende rapporteret nedgang i træthed, bedre varme tolerance, færre spasmer og nogle har fået forbedret syn og mobilitet. Dr. Dake har udført disse procedurer på Stanford siden maj, men er desværre stoppet. Han skulle efter sigende starte igen i løbet af 2010. Dr. Marian Simka i Polen udfører også stent og/eller ballon-proceduren. Forhåbentlig kommer der snart til at ske noget i Danmark ?!
« Senest Redigeret: 23 ſeptember 2011, 10:24:12 af hag »
47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.

Offline hag

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Sv: Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Svar #1 Dato: 09 Marts 2010, 13:22:39 »
Denne FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) som ligger på Facebook er rigtig god, og giver svar på mange af de spørgsmål man måtte have om CCSVI:

http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=226565202210&id=110796282297&ref=mf
47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.

Offline hag

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Sv: Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Svar #2 Dato: 05 Juli 2010, 22:20:06 »
En videnskabelig artikel, på engelsk, som på fremragende vis forklarer hvad CCSVI er:
(Kopieret fra CCSVI Locator)

Denise Manley: Background Information on CCSVI all in one place!

Posted by Ken Torbert

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of unknown origin. Since the time of Charcot, a relationship between the cerebral veins and the inflammatory lesions associated with MS has been consistently reported (1,2). Observations have been made that the periventricular lesions of MS seem to extend along cerebral veins and that the cortical lesions occur within territory drained by cortical veins (1,3-5). Additional post-mortem studies have confirmed the relationship between the lesions of MS and the small veins of the CNS (6-8). For example, Fog showed that MS plaques arise from segments of large epiventricular veins and then extend into the cerebral hemispheres along the cerebral veins (6). In addition, Putnam showed plaques lined with gliotic tissue containing large veins, surrounded by hematogenous pigment (7). While these observations imply a connection between the cerebral veins and MS, this connection was felt to be interesting but was largely ignored.

As MRI became a primary way of evaluating patients with MS, the potential connection between the cerebral venous circulation and MS was once again observed. Studies showed that patients with MS have cerebral blood flow disturbances, including decreased cerebral blood flow, decreased cerebral blood volume, and a prolonged mean transit time (9-12). These findings were felt by some to be due to vascular pathology and not a result of decreased metabolic demand (10,13). However, the cause of the abnormal flow was never fully explained. MR venography has also been helpful in directly demonstrating the relationship between the inflammatory lesions of MS and the cerebral veins (14).

Histologic studies of the venous system in MS have potentially shed some light on this relationship. These studies have shown evidence of both pericapillary fibrin cuffs and perivenous iron deposits in the form of extracellular hemosiderin and iron-laden macrophages (8,15,16). In addition, MRI has been able to detect these perivenous iron deposits (17-19). Iron is known to be important for CNS physiology since it is a cofactor for neural metabolism and ATP production and because it is involved in myelination and oligodendrocyte development (20,21). In addition, a role for iron in the pathophysiology of senile toxicity and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has been described (22-24), possibly due to oxidative stress and free-radical generation (18,25,26).

Interestingly, there appears to be a possible role for iron in the inflammation associated with MS, although investigations into this role are limited (20). For example, Grant, et al. found that the incidence of encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, which is often used as an experimental for MS, was 60-70% in mice with a normal iron level and in iron-overloaded mice, but 0% in iron-deficient mice, suggesting that iron-deficiency is protective against EAE (27). Similarly, Sfagos found higher levels of serum ferritin and soluble transferring receptors in active MS than in controls (28). Both of these findings support the hypothesis that local iron-overload may be the initial signal of the inflammatory chain in MS (2).

This relationship between the venous circulation and iron deposition has been better explored in patients with chronic venous insufficiency in the lower extremities (2). In the lower extremities, venous reflux and venous obstruction are known to cause multiple problems including varicose veins, edema, skin changes (including pigmentation, lipodermatosclerosis, etc.), and ultimately venous ulcers. Studies have demonstrated a relationship between tissue iron accumulation and the inflammatory changes associated with chronic venous insufficiency (29-32). In the lower extremities, venous stasis can lead to extravasation of red blood cells. The degradation of these cells causes iron to be released, ultimately leading to its incorporation into ferritin, hemosiderin deposition, and inflammatory change (2). In addition, both chronic venous reflux and local iron overload may activate matrix metalloprotease (MMP) in the vein wall, which can lead to the degradation of collagen, elastin, and laminin, resulting in tissue breakdown and ulcer formation (33-36). Finally, the presence of a pericapillary fibrin cuff has been shown around the lower extremity vasculature in these patients and is considered a marker of insufficient venous drainage.

One of the reasons why the correlation between venous abnormalities and MS has been explored recently is because histologic changes similar to those seen in chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities have been found in association with MS. A pericapillary fibrin cuff is consistently found in patients with MS (8,15,16), which is important since fibrin deposition is thought to exacerbate axonal injury in MS patients (37). In addition, it is known that MMP activation has a role in MS by digesting basement-membrane collagen and fibronectin, thereby facilitating the migration of cells and proteins into the CNS, perhaps inciting the inflammatory response characteristic of MS (38-40). Cellular migration may involve red blood cells and their degradation can lead to increased iron deposition. As stated previously, perivenous iron deposits have been found on both MR imaging studies and histologic studies in MS patients.

While the histologic findings described above seem to support similarities between MS and chronic venous insufficiency, recent descriptions of venous abnormalities in MS patients have lent additional support to the theory of Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency (CCSVI). Zamboni, et al used Doppler ultrasound to evaluate the venous circulation in patients with MS (41,42). The findings that were seen significantly more often in MS patients than in normal controls included constant reflux in the internal jugular and/or vertebral veins, reflux in the deep cerebral veins, indetectable flow in the internal jugular and/or vertebral veins, and a defined stenosis of the internal jugular veins. Patients with positive Doppler examinations were subsequently studied with selective venography, which showed that CCSVI is characterized by multiple extracranial stenoses involving the internal jugular and azygous veins (43). More recently, Zivadinov, et al reported on the preliminary data from the Combined Transcranial and Extracranial Venous Doppler Evaluation (CTEVD) study at the 2010 meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (44). This study evaluated 441 patients (280 patients with MS and 161 healthy controls) and found that the prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients was 56.4% and in healthy controls, it was 22.4%. When the 10.2% of subjects in which the results were borderline were excluded, the percentage of affected MS patients rose to 62.5% compared to 25.9% of healthy controls.

Zamboni, et al were able to define four main patterns of extracranial disease in MS patients based on involvement of the internal jugular and/or azygous veins. It was felt that these disease patterns may occur more frequently in different forms of MS (41,45). For example, the form involving the azygous vein may be more common in patients with the primary progressive form of MS, which correlates with the fact that spinal plaques are often seen in these patients. It was therefore theorized that the location of venous obstruction might play a key role in determining the clinical course of MS.

Importantly, the internal jugular and azygous veins represent the primary routes for venous outflow from the CNS. Extracranial Doppler studies have shown that the internal jugular veins are the predominant pathways for drainage when a patient is in the supine position and that the vertebral veins are the primary pathways when a patient is upright (46,47). When flow in the internal jugular veins and/or azygous vein is compromised, it can have physiologic implications for cerebral blood flow. Collateral vessels develop in order to prevent the development of intracranial venous hypertension (48,49). However, even with these collateral pathways in place, the venous drainage is insufficient and the transit time is prolonged, as confirmed by MR perfusion studies (10,48,49). This can lead to several problems. Since normal CSF circulation depends on efficient venous drainage from the CNS (50-52), insufficient venous drainage can lead to lower net CSF flow. This is supported by the increases in the volume of the lateral and third ventricles in MS patients (51). Insufficient venous drainage can also cause retrograde venous flow and reflux into the CNS (49), which has been demonstrated in the deep cerebral veins and transverse sinus in MS patients (53). Based on the Doppler studies performed by Zamboni, et al, the reflux occurs in any body position and without being elicited by a forced movement, which suggests that the reflux is due to a stenosis or occlusion as opposed to valvular incompetence (41).

The presence of chronic reflux and flow reversal in the cerebral venous system can lead to increases in the peak diastolic velocity of blood, which increases the resistance to flow (53). The microcirculation can then become overloaded and transmural pressure becomes increased (35,54). Even before any discussions about CCSVI, venous hypertension was thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of MS (55,56). It is thought that slight increases in venous pressure can lead to venous dilatation, which can potentially separate the endothelial cells forming the blood brain barrier (57). This can enable cells, including red blood cells, to pass through the blood brain barrier and initiate the perivenular inflammatory process that is seen in MS (2,53). In MS, changes in microcirculatory perfusion parameters on MRI have been shown to precede plaque formation (58). These ideas may explain the venous distribution of MS lesions.

With this in mind, Zamboni, et al treated 65 MS patients with CCSVI that was diagnosed on Doppler ultrasound (59). These patients underwent selective venography of the internal jugular and azygous veins from a common femoral vein approach. A significant stenosis was considered a venous lumen reduction >50%, which correlated with a pressure gradient of 2.2 cm/H20. All of these procedures were performed as outpatient procedures. All patients were treated with angioplasty, which led to improved luminal diameter and reduced venous pressures. Six patients reported a post-operative headache, which resolved spontaneously in all patients. No other operative or postoperative complications were reported. Patients were followed with repeat Doppler ultrasound and venography at 18 months. At the completion of follow-up 96% of lesions treated in the azygous vein were patent and 53% of lesions treated in the internal jugular veins were patent; many of these patients underwent secondary angioplasty but the long-term patency after this second intervention has not yet been studied. Zamboni also showed sustained clinical improvement in relapsing-remitting patients as evidenced by significant improvement in the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). However, only limited improvement was seen in patients with primary and secondary progressive MS. All of the relapsing-remitting patients with continued patency of the internal jugular and azygous veins at 18 months were relapse-free. In addition, there were reductions in enhancing lesions on the MRI studies performed in these patients one year after treatment. This study concluded that endovascular treatment of CCSVI using angioplasty is feasible and safe.

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47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.

Offline hag

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Sv: Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Svar #3 Dato: 26 Juli 2010, 09:09:35 »
ccsvi.org er et godt sted at starte, hvis man kan læse engelsk. Specielt sektionen "The Basics".
47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.

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Sv: Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Svar #4 Dato: 19 Februar 2011, 13:29:41 »
Vein Care Institute i USA fortæller her om "Venous insufficiency" - de snakker om benene, men problemet er fuldstændig det samme som CCSVI.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oUKI_-enwZM
47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.

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Sv: Hvad er CCSVI ???
« Svar #5 Dato: 01 Maj 2011, 19:44:04 »
Denne tekst på engelsk demonstrerer, at det ikke er første gang (med CCSVI) at de kloge lærte har valgt at ignorere resultater fra forskning som ikke passer ind i deres egne teorier: http://www.uwomeds.com/uwomj/v79n2/weiss.pdf
47 år, attakvis Sklerose, diagnose juni 2009. Liberation hos Ameds i Polen.
FMT behandling hos Taymount i England.
Nu på Gilenya.